A Conceptual Study of Human and Non-Human Factors in Determining Medical Tourists’ Satisfaction

  • Hana Mazahery
  • Shankar Chelliah

Abstract

Medical tourism has become one of the most beneficial industries for the economy cycle of those countries which have potential. On the other hand, considering how important it is for developing countries in particular to grow their revenue through foreign exchange currency, taking advantage of this multi-billion-dollar industry is a significant opportunity that they cannot disregard. Moreover, medical tourists’ perception and satisfaction play a crucial role in this field since they can lead the country to receive more visitors and be a stronger pole in this industry. Hence, this study aims to present a conceptual examination on the importance of evaluating medical tourists’ satisfaction through the categories of human and non-human factors.

References

Dictionary, S. M. (2011). Waiting Tme. Retrieved from https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/waiting+time
Aydin, G., & Karamehmet, B. (2017). Factors affecting health tourism and international health-care facility choice. International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, 11(1), 16–36. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJPHM-05-2015-0018
Liu, I.-C., & Chen, C. (2013). Cultural Issues in Medical Tourism.
Varzi, A. M., Saki, K., Momeni, K., Rajabi Vasokolaei, G., Khodakaramifard, Z., Arab Zouzani, M., & Jalilian, H. (2016). The Health Tourists’ Satisfaction Level of Services Provided: A Cross-Sectional Study in Iran. Global Journal of Health Science, 8(9), 294. https://doi.org/10.5539/gjhs.v8n9p294
Hasbullah, N., Mahajar, A. J., & Salleh, M. I. (2014). A Conceptual Framework of Extending the Theory of Planned Behavior: The Role of Service Quality and Trust in the Consumer Cooperatives. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 5(12), 142–148. Retrieved from https://ijbssnet.com/journals/vol_5_no_12_november_2014/17.pdf%0D
گردشگری سلامت در ایران و جهان. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://internationalhta.com/گردشگری-سلامت-در-ایران-و-جهان
Renée-Marie Stephano. (2018). Top 10 Medical Tourism Destinations in the World. Retrieved from https://www.medicaltourismmag.com/article/top-10-medical-tourism-destinations-world
رکورد یک ساله گردشگر سلامت در ۴ ماه زده شد. (2019). Retrieved from https://tejaratnews.com/رکورد-یک-ساله-گردشگری-سلامت-در-۴-ماه
Iran sees a decline in health tourist influx. (2017). Retrieved from https://www.tehrantimes.com/news/419848/Iran-sees-a-decline-in-health-tourist-influx
Shabaninejad, H., Gorgi, H., & Ziaee niri, A. (2016). Ranking the Effective Factors in Attracting Health Tourists in Tehran: Application of Multi-criteria decision-making model. Journal of Biology and Today’s World, 5(11), 203–208. https://doi.org/10.15412/j.jbtw.01051103
Haque, A., Yasmin, F., & Anwar, N. (2018). Factors Determinant of Patients ’ Satisfaction towards Health Tourism in Malaysia. 1(May), 1–18.
Shabestari Bahrami, S. (n.d.). Health Tourism in Islamic Countries and Iran.
Hattangadi, V. (2016). Why study of National Character is important? Retrieved from https://drvidyahattangadi.com/why-study-of-national-character-is-important/
Turner, L. (2007). Medical Tourism - Family medicine and international health-related travel. Canadian Family Physician, 26(11), 1009–1014. https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-2952(77)90236-2
Oyur Celik, G. (2017). The relationship between patient satisfaction and emotional intelligence skills of nurses working in surgical clinics. Patient Preference and Adherence, Volume 11, 1363–1368. https://doi.org/10.2147/ppa.s136185
Delgoshaei, B., Ravaghi, H., & Abolhassani, N. (2012). Importance-Performance Analysis of Medical Tourism in Iran from Medical Tourists and Medical Services Provider ’ s Perspective. Middle East Journal of Scientific Research, 12(11), 1541–1547. https://doi.org/10.5829/idosi.mejsr.2012.12.11.39
سهم ایران از گردشگری سلامت به 5 میلیارد دلار می رسد. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.salamatnews.com/news/264289/-سهم-ایران-از-گردشگری-سلامت-به-5-میلیارد-دلار-می-رسد
Azimi, R., Mahmoudi, G., & Esmaeili, H. (2017). Ranking Factors Affecting the Attraction of Foreign Medical Tourists in Hospitals Affiliated to Mashhad University of Medical Sciences Based on Marketing Mix Model. 47(10), 1593–1598.
Waikar, A. M., Cappel, S. D., & Tate, U. S. (2011). Challenges and Opportunities for Developing Countries from Medical Tourism. Journal of Business and Economics May Print. Journal of Business and Economics, 2(5), 397–404. Retrieved from http://mds.marshall.edu/mgmt_faculty
Saki, K., Varzi, A. M., Momeni, K., Khodakaramifard, Z., Arab Zouzani, M., Jalilian, H., & Rajabi Vasokolaei, G. (2017). Tourists’ satisfaction of hospital services in Iran: A case study of Lorestan province. Shiraz E Medical Journal, 18(6). https://doi.org/10.5812/semj.13797
Torcson, P. J. (n.d.). Patient Satisfaction: the Hospitalist’s Role. Retrieved from https://www.the-hospitalist.org/hospitalist/article/122984/patient-satisfaction-hospitalists-role
Sag, I., & Zengul, F. D. (2018). Why medical tourists choose Turkey as a medical tourism destination? Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Insights. https://doi.org/10.1108/jhti-05-2018-0031
Huei, C. T. (2016). A study of medical tourists ’ behavioural intention in relation to hospital brand image and the mediating effects of perceived value and trust. (April).
Mahmoudifar, Y., Tabibi, S. J., Nasiripour, A. A., & Riahi, L. (2016). Effective factors on the development of medical tourism industry in the West Azerbaijan Province, Iran: Pattern presentation. International Journal of Medical Research & Health Sciences, 5(7), 620–630. Retrieved from http://www.ijmrhs.com/medical-research/effective-factors-on-the-development-of-medical-tourism-industry-in-the-west-azerbaijan-province-iran-pattern-presentati.pdf
Izadi, M., Ayoubian, A., Saadat, S. H., Zarnaq, R. K., Abbasi, S., Moein, N., & Hekmat, M. (2012). Medical Travel : The Ethical and Legal Challenges. 1(1), 23–28.
Jha, D., Keller Frye, A., & Schlimgen, J. (2017). Evaluating variables of patient experience and the correlation with design. Patient Experience Journal, 4(1), 33–45. Retrieved from http://pxjournal.org/journalAvailableat:http://pxjournal.org/journal/vol4/iss1/5
WHO. (2012). Course : To Err is Human Topic : Why applying human factors is important for patient safety Summary. 1–3.
Wan Normila Mohamad, Azizah Omar, M. S. H. (2013). The Moderating Effect of Medical Travel Facilitators in Medical Tourism. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 65(ICIBSoS), 358–363. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.11.134
Hui, T. K., & Wan, D. (2009). Health-care tourism in Singapore. In Advances in Hospitality and Leisure (Vol. 5). https://doi.org/10.1108/S1745-3542(2009)0000005010
Viswanath Reddy, L. K. (2017). Evaluating Medical Tourism Prospects of Joint Commission International Accredited Hospitals in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Health Science Journal, 11(2), 1–8. https://doi.org/10.21767/1791-809x.1000496
Kumar, J., & Hussian, K. (2016). Factors affecting medical tourism destination selection: A Malaysian perspective. Journal of Global Business Insights, 1(1), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.5038/2640-6489.1.1.1000
Mohammad Nayef Alsarayreh, M. S. M. M. K. H. A. A. N. (2017). A Study of the Determinants Influencing Customer Satisfaction in the Medical Tourism Industry in Jordan. International Review of Management and Marketing, 7(3), 349–356. Retrieved from http://iaset.us/view_archives.php?year=2017&id=32&jtype=2&page=2
Saadatnia, F., & Mehregan, M. R. (2014). Determining and Prioritizing Factors Affecting to Increase Customers Attraction of Medical Tourism from the Perspective of Arabic Countries (Case Study: Iran-Mashhad Razavi Hospital). International Journal of Marketing Studies, 6(3), 155–162. https://doi.org/10.5539/ijms.v6n3p155
600,000 HEALTH TOURISTS TO IRAN FROM MAR-JULY. (2019). Retrieved from https://www.imtj.com/news/600000-health-tourists-to-iran-from-mar-july/
Krishnan, T. D. (2016). Factors Determining International Patients Revisit Intention for Medical Treatments in Malaysia.
Momeni, K., Janati, A., Imani, A., & Khodayari-Zarnaq, R. (2018). Barriers to the development of medical tourism in East Azerbaijan province, Iran: A qualitative study. Tourism Management, 69(June), 307–316. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2018.05.007
Pre-Test. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.insightsassociation.org/issues-policies/glossary/pre-test
کاهش 10 درصدی ورود گردشگر سلامت. (2017). Retrieved from http://www.iribnews.ir/fa/news/1968024/کاهش-۱۰-درصدی-ورود-گردشگر-سلامت
Nazem, G., & Mohamed, B. (2015). Understanding Medical Tourists’ Perception of Private Hospital Service Quality in Penang Island. Asian Culture and History, 8(1), 100. https://doi.org/10.5539/ach.v8n1p100
International Patient Safety Goals. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.jointcommissioninternational.org/improve/international-patient-safety-goals/
Seyed Mojtaba, H., Ali, M., Omidreza, S., Ali, A., Donya, S.-T., Hossein, A.-A., & Zahra, H. D. (2015). Development Strategy of Health Tourism in Iran. International Journal of Travel Medicine and Global Health, 3(4), 161–167. https://doi.org/10.20286/ijtmgh-0304143
No Title. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://medicaltourism.com/Forms/price-comparison.aspx
Medical travelers hold significant share of arrivals in Iran: tourism chief. (2019). Retrieved from https://www.tehrantimes.com/news/439444/Medical-travelers-hold-significant-share-of-arrivals-in-Iran
Najafi Nasab, M., Agheli, L., Andrade, M. V., Sadeghi, H., & Faraji Dizaji, S. (2018). Determinants of Medical Tourism Expansion in Iran: Structural Equation Modeling Approach. 7(1), 1–8. https://doi.org/10.22099/ijes.2018.30739.1485
Adamson, K., Bains, J., Pantea, L., Tyrhwitt, J., Tolomiczenko, G., & Mitchell, T. (2012). Understanding the Patients’ Perspective of Emotional Support to Significantly Improve Overall Patient Satisfaction Patient Satisfaction: An Industry Focus, but What Have We Learned? Healthcare Quarterly, 15(4), 63–69. Retrieved from http://www.nationalresearch.ca/uploads/Links/HQ_vol15_no4_-Adamson.pdf
Medical Tourism in Iran Hits New Record in Four Months. (2019). Retrieved from https://ifpnews.com/medical-tourism-in-iran-hits-new-record-in-four-months
Medical tourism fetches Iran $1.2b in last fiscal year. (2019). Retrieved from https://www.tehrantimes.com/news/433195/Medical-tourism-fetches-Iran-1-2b-in-last-fiscal-year
No Title. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://mohht.ir/index.aspx?siteid=430
Khan, M. J. (2018). Antecedents of Destination Image and Visit Intention Among Sub-Saharan African Patients to India.
افزایش ایران یک و نیم برابری گردشگران سلامت. (2019). Retrieved from https://www.irinn.ir/fa/news/676320/افزایش-ایران-یک-و-نیم-برابری-گردشگران-سلامت
Namin, A. T., & Malekzadeh, N. (2017). Identifying and prioritizing the factors relating to Tehran ’ s medical tourism. 6(4), 581–593.
Sultana, S., Haque, A., Momen, A., & Yasmin, F. (2014). Factors affecting the attractiveness of medical tourism destination: an empirical study on India- review article. Iranian Journal of Public Health, 43(7), 867–876. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25909055%0Ahttp://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=PMC4401052
Heath, S. (n.d.). Patient Satisfaction and HCAHPS: What It Means for Providers. Retrieved from https://patientengagementhit.com/features/patient-satisfaction-and-hcahps-what-it-means-for-providers
Saiprasert, W. (2011). An Examination of the Medical Tourists Motivational Behavior and Perception: A Structural Model. 55.
Chelliah, S., Khan, M. J., Krishnan, T., Kamarulzaman, M. E. B. M., & Goh, N. E. (2018). Factors influencing satisfaction and revisit intention among international exchange students in Malaysia. Journal of International Education in Business, 12(1), 111–130. https://doi.org/10.1108/JIEB-07-2018-0026
Sarantopoulos, I., Vicky, K., & Geitona, M. (2014). A Supply Side Investigation of Medical Tourism and ICT Use in Greece. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 148, 370–377. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.07.055
Ngwira, C., & Kankhuni, Z. (2018). What attracts tourists to a destination? Is it attractions? African Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure, 7(1), 1–19.
Beladi, H., Chao, C. C., Ee, M. S., & Hollas, D. (2019). Does Medical Tourism Promote Economic Growth? A Cross-Country Analysis. Journal of Travel Research, 58(1), 121–135. https://doi.org/10.1177/0047287517735909
Rao, V. P., & Choudhury, R. R. (2017). A Study of the factors Influencing Customer Satisfaction Medical Tourism in India. International Review of Management and Marketing, 7(3), 349–356.
Ghazali, M., Darmesh R., D., Kee Mun, W., & Thinaranjeney, T. (2012). How Satisfied are Inbound Medical Tourists in Malaysia? A Study on Private Hospitals in Kuala Lumpur. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, 29(7), 629–646. https://doi.org/10.1080/10548408.2012.720150
Mahdavi, Y., Mardani, S., Hashemidehaghi, Z., & Mardani, N. (2013). The Factors in Development of Health Tourism in Iran. 1(3), 113–118.
Rezaee, R., & Mohammadzadeh, M. (2016). Effective factors in expansion of medical tourism in Iran. Medical Journal of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 30(1), 1–6.
Medhekar, A., Wong, H. Y., & Hall, J. E. (2018). Factors influencing inbound medical travel to India. Journal of Health Organization and Management, 33(2), 155–172. https://doi.org/10.1108/JHOM-08-2018-0234
Published
2020-06-15
How to Cite
MAZAHERY, Hana; CHELLIAH, Shankar. A Conceptual Study of Human and Non-Human Factors in Determining Medical Tourists’ Satisfaction. Asian Journal of Arts, Culture and Tourism, [S.l.], v. 2, n. 2, p. 1-11, june 2020. ISSN 2710-5830. Available at: <http://myjms.moe.gov.my/index.php/ajact/article/view/9575>. Date accessed: 11 aug. 2020.
Section
Articles