• Nurul Nadia Jamaludin
  • Muslihah Hasbullah


Although Malaysia is increasingly enforcing specific laws and regulations on various civil and criminal matters, there are still a number of people who refuse to comply with the laws. As an example, recently government of Malaysia has enforced law that banning smoking behavior in restaurant areas. Unfortunately a number of smokers ignored the law and they do not even care with the warning and penalties announced by the authority. This is an example of non-compliance behaviour. What makes people dare to violate the law? This question requires specific explanation about the differences in the developmental processes of adult attitudes towards the law which is directly tied to individuals’ compliance with the law and cooperation with the legal authorities. Based on the previous studies, the compliance and non-compliance behaviours are as a result of the development of legal socialization processes. Therefore the main aim of this article is to analyse the factors or driving forces that influence the development of legal socialization in an individual. The method used in this study was through reviewing the research findings available in the academic databases. This paper concludes that positive driving forces will develop positive legal socialization which finally has a greater chance to produce compliance behaviour.


Bandura, A. (1999). Moral Disengagement in the Perpetration of Inhumanities. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 3(3), 193–209.
Cohn, E. S., & White, S. O. (1986). Cognitive Development Versus Social Learning Approaches to Studying Legal Socialization, 7(3), 195–209. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15324834basp0703
Fagan, J., & Tyler, T. R. (2005). Legal socialization of children and adolescents. Social Justice Research, 18(3), 217–241. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11211-005-6823-3
Gau, J. M. (2015). Procedural justice, police legitimacy, and legal cynicism: a test for mediation effects. Police Practice and Research, 16(5), 402–415. https://doi.org/10.1080/15614263.2014.927766
Hogan, R., Mills, C., & Mills, H. (1976). Legal Socialization1, 276, 261–276.
Jackson, J., Milani, J., & Bradford, B. (2017). Empirical Legitimacy and Normative Compliance with the Law. Global Encyclopedia of Public Administration, Public Policy and Governance, (September).
Kirk, D. S., & Matsuda, M. (2011). Legal Cynicism, Collective Efficacy, And The Ecology Of Arrest. Criminology, 49(2), 443–472. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.2011.00226.x
Knoll, M., Lord, R. G., Petersen, L. E., & Weigelt, O. (2016). Examining the moral grey zone: The role of moral disengagement, authenticity, and situational strength in predicting unethical managerial behavior. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 46(1), 65–78. https://doi.org/10.1111/jasp.12353
Kolivoski, K. M., Shook, J. J., Johnson, H. C., Goodkind, S., Fusco, R., DeLisi, M., & Vaughn, M. G. (2016). Applying Legal Socialization to the Child Welfare System: Do Youths’ Perceptions of Caseworkers Matter? Child and Youth Care Forum, 45(1), 65–83. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10566-015-9317-y
Li, J. Bin, Nie, Y. G., Boardley, I. D., Situ, Q. M., & Dou, K. (2014). Moral disengagement moderates the predicted effect of trait self-control on self-reported aggression. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 17(4), 312–318. https://doi.org/10.1111/ajsp.12072
Luftey, K., & Morimter, J. T. (2003). Development and socialization through the adult life course. Handbook of Social Psychology, 183–202.
McLeod, S. (2016). Bandura - Social Learning Theory. SimplyPsychology.Org, (1977), 1–5. https://doi.org/10.1210/en.2014-1815
Moore, C. (2015). ScienceDirect Moral disengagement. Current Opinion in Psychology, 6(August 2015), 199–204. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.copsyc.2015.07.018
Murphy, K., Tyler, T. R., & Curtis, A. (2009). Nurturing regulatory compliance: Is procedural justice effective when people question the legitimacy of the law? Regulation and Governance, 3(1), 1–26. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-5991.2009.01043.x
Neal, T. M. S., & Cramer, R. J. (2017). Moral Disengagement in Legal Judgments. Journal of Empirical Legal Studies, 14(4), 745–761. https://doi.org/10.1111/jels.12163
O.Fickenauer, J. (1998). Legal Socialization: Concept and Practice, 30–40.
Pelton, J., Gound, M., Forehand, R., & Brody, G. (2004). The Moral Disengagement Scale: Extension with An American Minority Sample. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 26(1), 31–39. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:JOBA.0000007454.34707.a5
Piquero, A. R., Fagan, J., Mulvey, E. P., Steinberg, L., & Odgers, C. (2005). Developmental Trajectories of Legal Socialization Among Serious Adolescent Offenders. The Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology, 96(1), 267–298. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19915683%0Ahttp://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=PMC2776646
Reisig, M. D., Wolfe, S. E., & Holtfreter, K. (2011). Legal cynicism, legitimacy, and criminal offending: The nonconfounding effect of low self-control. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 38(12), 1265–1279. https://doi.org/10.1177/0093854811424707
Trinkner, R., & Cohn, E. S. (2014). Putting the social back in legal socialization: Procedural justice, legitimacy, and cynicism in legal and nonlegal authorities. Law and Human Behavior, 38(6), 602–617. https://doi.org/10.1037/lhb0000107
Tyler, T. R. (1990). Tyler1990 WHY PEOPLE OBEY THE LAW - 6PÁGINAS (3).pdf.
Tyler, T. R. (2006). Psychological Perspectives on Legitimacy and Legitimation. Annual Review of Psychology, 57(1), 375–400. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.57.102904.190038
Tyler, T. R., & Darley, J. M. (2000). Building a Law-Abiding Society: Taking Public Views about Morality and the Legitimacy of Legal Authorities into Account When Formulating Substantive Law. Hofstra Law Review, 28(3), 707–739. https://doi.org/10.1525/sp.2007.54.1.23.
Wolfe, S. E., McLean, K., & Pratt, T. C. (2016). I Learned It By Watching You: Legal Socialization and the Intergenerational Transmission of Legitimacy Attitudes. British Journal of Criminology, (March), azw038. https://doi.org/10.1093/bjc/azw038
How to Cite
JAMALUDIN, Nurul Nadia; HASBULLAH, Muslihah. WHY PEOPLE VIOLATE THE LAW? A REVIEW OF LITERATURE ON LEGAL SOCIALIZATION. Asian Journal of Law and Governance, [S.l.], v. 1, n. 2, p. 15-23, feb. 2020. ISSN 2710-5849. Available at: <http://myjms.moe.gov.my/index.php/ajlg/article/view/8166>. Date accessed: 13 july 2020.