Maritime Cooperation in the Straits of Malacca (2016-2020): Challenges and Recommend For a New Framework

  • Noraini Zulkifli
  • Raja Ismail Raja Ibrahim
  • Azrul Azlan Abdul Rahman
  • Amer Fawwaz Mohd Yasid

Abstract

The Strait of Malacca is one of the busiest maritime Sea Lanes of Communications (SLOCs) in the world because of its importance in transporting goods trade. However, like any other straits, Straits of Malacca also do not escape from maritime criminal attack. As a Littoral States to Straits of Malacca, Malaysia, Indonesia and Singapore have taking initiatives to improve the security in that area. This study will attempt to explain the priorities and challenges of Malaysia and Indonesia to cooperate in the Straits of Malacca between 2016- 2020. It has three objectives: namely 1) to identify maritime threats in Straits of Malacca; 2) to analyse the priorities and challenges of the Littoral States maritime cooperation in the Straits of Malacca; 3) to recommend the potential of a new maritime cooperation Malaysia-Indonesia in the Straits of Malacca. This study will use both primary and secondary data. Primary data was collected from structured interviews involving ten informants in various professional fields that are directly involved in maritime security in the Straits of Malacca. Secondary data was collected from literature reviews based on scientific publications, theses, journal articles, and online material, such as newspaper articles. Primary data was also obtained from professional respondents from abroad through electronic media such as email. The findings of this study show that, there have traditional and non-traditional threats in Straits of Malacca; 2) Littoral States very committed to enhance the maritime security and safety in Straits of Malacca but they facing financial and facilities problems; 3) Littoral states should share the burden of responsibility to maintain the maritime security and safety in the Straits of Malacca with other user nations as they also used the waterway frequently.

References

Abd, H., & Shah, R. (2014). Malaysian Experience in Combatting Piracy and Armed Robbery in the Straits of Malacca: Some Recommendations. Journal of International Relations and Foreign PolicyOnline) Journal of International Relations and Foreign Policy.
Abdullah, K., & Kadir, M. F. A. (2006). Trends, Problems And Challenges In Managing Piracy Threats In The Straits Of Melaka. Journal Of International Studies-Jis.
Abdullah, K. (2011). Emerging Threats to Malaysia’s National Security. Journal of Policing, Intelligence and Counter Terrorism, 5(2), 55–70.
Awang, M. B., Zakaria, Z., Hassan, M. N., Lungit, A., & Abdullah, R. (2000). Environmental risk in the Straits of Malacca: priorities, uncertainties and decision making. Towards sustainable management of the Straits of Malacca. Proceedings of the International Conference on the Straits of Malacca, 19-22 April 1999, Malacca, Malaysia.
Ba, A. D. (2018). Governing the Safety and Security of the Malacca Strait: The Nippon Foundation between States and Industry. Journal of Contemporary Asia.
Abd, H., & Shah, R. (2014). Malaysian Experience in Combatting Piracy and Armed Robbery in the Straits of Malacca: Some Recommendations. Journal of International Relations and Foreign PolicyOnline) Journal of International Relations and Foreign Policy.
Abdullah, K. & Kadir, M. F. A. (2006). Trends, Problems And Challenges In Managing Piracy Threats In The Straits Of Melaka. Journal Of International Studies-Jis.
Abdullah, K. (2011). Emerging Threats to Malaysia’s National Security. Journal of Policing, Intelligence and Counter Terrorism, 5(2), 55–70.
Ba, A. D. (2018). Governing the Safety and Security of the Malacca Strait: The Nippon Foundation between States and Industry. Journal of Contemporary Asia.
Buang, A. (2006). The Malacca Strait 1992-2006 : Revisiting the challenge of managing a regional environmental resource. Geografia OnlineTM Malaysian Journal of Society and Space.
Mohd Rusli, M. H. bin. (2016). Balancing the Tensions between Shipping and Marine Environmental Protection in the Straits of Malacca and Singapore. The International Journal of Environmental, Cultural, Economic, and Social Sustainability: Annual Review.
Beckman, R.C., Warr, C.G. & Forbes, V.L. 1994. Maritime briefing: Act of Piracy in the Straits of Malacca. Journal of International Boundaries Research Unit 1(4): 35.
Bateman,S., Raymond,C.Z., & Ho,J. 2006. Safety and Security in the Malacca and Singapore Strait: An Agenda for Action. Policy Paper Institute of Defence and Strategic Studies, Singapore: Nanyang Technological University.
Bateman, S. Terror in the Straits of Malacca: The Risks of Overreaction, RSIS Commentaries, 10 March 2010.
Bateman, S., Ho, J., and Chan, J., Good Order at Sea in Southeast Asia, RSIS Policy Paper, April 2009, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.
Bateman. S. 2010. Confronting Maritime Crime in Southeast Asian Waters: Re-examining “Piracy” in the Twenty-first Century, in Piracy and Maritime Crime Historical and Modern Case Studies, Elleman, B.A, Forbes, A., and Rosenberg, D. (ed.) Naval War College Newport Papers.
Bradford, J.F. The Growing Prospects for Maritime Security Cooperation in Southeast Asia. Naval War College Review, Vol. 58, No. 3, Summer 2005.
Bateman, S., Ho, J., & Mathai, M. (2009). Shipping Patterns in the Malacca and Singapore Straits: An Assessment of the Risks to Different Types of Vessel. Contemporary Southeast Asia.
Buang, A. (2006). The Malacca Strait 1992-2006 : Revisiting the challenge of managing a regional environmental resource. Geografia OnlineTM Malaysian Journal of Society and Space.
Case Concerning Sovereignty Over Pulau Ligitan And Pulau Sipadan, ICJ Reports of Judgments, Advisory Opinions and Orders, 2002.
Case Concerning Sovereignty Over Pedra Branca I Pulau Batu Puteh, Middle Rocks and South Ledge, ICJ, Memorial of Singapore Vol. 1, 25 March 2004.
Collin, K. S. L. (2016). The Malacca Strait Patrols: Finding Common Ground. RSIS Commentary.
Chia, R. Khan, P. Hangzo, K. Punzalan, K. Maritime Predations in the Straits of Malaccas: Treading New Waters, in NTS Insight, August/1 2009. RSIS: Singapore.
Evers, H.-D., & Gerke, S. (2010). The Strategic Importance of the Straits of Malacca. SSRN.
Evers, H., & Darit, S. (2011). Malaysian Maritime Potential and the Straits of Malacca. Marine Policy.
Evers, H.-D., & Gerke, S. (2010). The Strategic Importance of the Straits of Malacca. SSRN. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1020877
Ho, J. H. (2009). Enhancing safety, security, and environmental protection of the straits of Malacca and Singapore: The cooperative mechanism. Ocean Development and International Law.
Ho, J. The Shifting of Maritime Power and the Implication for Maritime Security in East Asia, IDSS Working Paper, June 2004, Institute of Defence and Strategic Studies, Singapore: Nanyang Technological University.
Ghulamsarwar Jan Mohammed, ‘Enforcement and Cooperation at Sea: Issues and Problems.’ Paper presented at MIMA Workshop on Protecting Maritime Assets, 27-28 October 1998.

ICC - IMB Piracy and Armed Robbery Against Ships Annual Report: 1 January – 31 December 2018.
ICC - IMB Piracy and Armed Robbery Against Ships Report for the Period: 1 January – 30 June 2017.
Haseman, J. B. National Interests and Mil-Mil Relations with Indonesia, Joint Forces Quarterly, no. 32 (Autumn 2002).
Ho, J. The Straits of Malacca: Will It Continue to Be Safe? RSIS Commentaries, 10 March 2010.
Ho, J. H. (2009). Enhancing safety, security, and environmental protection of the straits of Malacca and Singapore: The cooperative mechanism. Ocean Development and International Law.
Ibrahim, H. & Khalid, N. (2007). Growing Shipping Traffic In The Strait Of Malacca : Some Reflections On The Environmental Impact. In Maritime Institute of Malaysia.
Ibrahim, H. M. (2008). Straits safety not just littoral states’ burden. New Straits Times.
Ibrahim, H. & Khalid, N. (2007). Growing Shipping Traffic In The Strait Of Malacca : Some Reflections On The Environmental Impact. In Maritime Institute of Malaysia. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0033-1358626
Isfarin, N. N., & Triatmodjo, M. (2015). International Cooperation on Marine Environment Protection of Oil Pollution from Vessel (AStudy of Straits Malacca and Singapore). Indonesian Journal of International Law.
Ismail, S. Z. (2010). Major Powers And Littoral States Strategic Interests In The Straits Of Malacca. The Third International Conference on International Studies (ICIS 2010), 1st-2nd December 2010, Hotel Istana Kuala Lumpur.
Ismail, S. Z., Azizuddin, M., & Sani, M. (n.d.). e Straits of Malacca : Regional Powers Vis-A-Vis Littoral States in Strategic and Security Issues and Interests, 83–105.
Laporan Tahunan 2009. Pusat Penyelarasan Penguatkuasaan Maritim Malaysia (PPPM).
Leifer. M. 1980. Conflict and regional order in South-east Asia, ADELPHI Paper No. 162. London: IISS.
Lee, T. & McGahan, K. (2015). Norm subsidiarity and institutional cooperation: explaining the straits of Malacca anti-piracy regime. Pacific Review. https://doi.org/10.1080/09512748.2015.1012537
Lehr, P. (2006). Violence at sea: Piracy in the age of global terrorism. Violence at Sea: Piracy in the Age of Global Terrorism. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203943489
Lee, K. W. F. (2005). Challenges facing the marine environment on the Straits of Malacca. In 17th Australasian Littoral and Ocean Engineering Conference 2005 and the 10th Australasian Port and Harbour Conference 2005, Coasts And Ports 2005.
MIMA. (2009). Maritime Capacity-building Measures in the Straits of Malacca. Optometry. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.optm.2006.10.013
Mohd Rusli, M. H. bin. (2016). Balancing the Tensions between Shipping and Marine Environmental Protection in the Straits of Malacca and Singapore. The International Journal of Environmental, Cultural, Economic, and Social Sustainability: Annual Review.
Mun, T. S. (2013). Chapter 3 Malaysia ’ s Internal and External Security Dynamics, (September).
Murphy, M.N. 2007. Contemporary Piracy and Maritime Terrorism: The Threat to International Security. Journal of International Institute for Strategic Studies.388: 108.
Muthiah Alagappa. The Dynamic of International Security in Southeast Asia: Change and Continuity, Australian Journal of International Affairs 45, No. 1 (May 1991).
Noraini, Z. (2020). Kepentingan Nasional Jepun di Selat Melaka. Bangi: Penerbit UKM
Rahman, N. A. (2014). Multilateralism in the Straits of Malacca and Singapore. Marine Policy.
Nazery Khalid. 2006. Security in the Straits of Malacca. Japan Focus Journal.
Nick Brown, Malaysia asks for help to fight piracy, Jane Navy International,
(November 2003).
Pauline Kerr, “The Security Dialogue in the Asia-Pacific,” Pacific Review 7, no. 4 (December 1994).
Raymond, C. Z. (2010). Piracy and Armed Robbery in the Malacca Strait: A Problem Solved? In Piracy and Maritime Crime: Historical and Modern Case Studies.
Raymond, C.Z. 2006. Maritime Terrorism in Southeast Asia: A Risk Assessment. In David C. Rapoport & Paul Wilkinson (ed.), Terrorism and Political Violence, Philadelphia: Taylor & Francis Group, Summer 2006, Vol. 18.
Raymond. C.Z. 2009. Piracy and Armed Robbery In The Straits of Malacca: A Problem Solved? Naval War College Review, Summer 2009, Vol. 62, No. 3.
Rahman, N. A. (2014). Multilateralism in the Straits of Malacca and Singapore. MarinePolicy.
Rusli, M. H. B. M., Mustafa, M. B., & Wan Talaat, W. I. A. B. (2013). Replacing the transit passage regime with freedom of navigation in the Strait of Malacca: A case study with special reference to the Korea Strait. Ocean and Littoral Management. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2013.03.003
Richardson, M. Maritime Security in Southeast Asia, Regional Outlook, Southeast Asia 2005-2006. Singapore: Institutes of Southeast Asian Studies.
Robert, P., Parks, J., Pollnac, R., Campson, T., Genio, E., Marlessy, C., Holle, E., Pido, M., Nissapa, A., Boromthanarat, S. and Nguyen Thu Hue. 2007. ‘Fish wars: Conflict and collaboration in fisheries management in Southeast Asia’, Marine Policy Journal 31.
R. Flaller-Trost. 1995. ‘The Territorial Dispute between Indonesia and Malaysia over Pulau Sipadan and Pulau Ligitan in the Celebes Sea: A Study in International Law’ in Boundary & Territory Briefing. Vol. 2, No. 2. International Boundaries Research Unit, University of Durham.
Shintaro, A. (2008). Maritime security cooperation in the Strait of Malacca Naval Postgraduate.
Simon, S. W. (2011). Safety and security in the Malacca straits: The limits of collaboration. Asian Security.
Tamara Rence Shie, The Nexus between Counter- terrorism, Counter-proliferation, and Maritime Security in Southeast Asia, Issue & Insights Vol. 4-No.4, Pacific Forum CSIS, Honolulu, Hawaii, July 2004.
Teo, Y. Y. (2007). Target Malacca Straits: Maritime terrorism in Southeast Asia. Studies in Conflict and Terrorism.
Upadhyaya, S. (2010). Malacca Strait Security Initiative: Potential for Indian Navy’s Participation in the Evolving Regional Security Environment. Maritime Affairs:Journal of the National Maritime Foundation of India.
United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) 10 December 1982.
Vertzberger, Y. Y. I. (2017). Littoral States, Regional Powers, Superpowers and the Malacca-Singapore Straits. Verfassung in Recht Und Übersee, 19(1), 99–100.
Weitz, G. R. (2008). Lloyd’s of London as a transnational actor: Maritime security cooperation in the Malacca Straits since 9/11. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses.
Zulkifli, N., Alatas, S. M., & Othman, Z. (2014). The Importance of the Malacca Straits to Japan: Cooperation and Contribution Toward Littoral States. Malaysian Journal of History, Politics & Strategic Studies, 41(December), 80–98.
Published
2020-06-15
How to Cite
ZULKIFLI, Noraini et al. Maritime Cooperation in the Straits of Malacca (2016-2020): Challenges and Recommend For a New Framework. Asian Journal of Research in Education and Social Sciences, [S.l.], v. 2, n. 2, p. 10-32, june 2020. Available at: <http://myjms.moe.gov.my/index.php/ajress/article/view/9601>. Date accessed: 13 july 2020.
Section
Articles