Co-pyrolysis of Palm Empty Fruit Bunch and Palm Kernel Shell with Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) Sludge

  • Jia Yun Teoh Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus, Jalan Broga, Semenyih 43500, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
  • Yen Yee Chong Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus, Jalan Broga, Semenyih 43500, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
  • Harvindran Vasu Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus, Jalan Broga, Semenyih 43500, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
  • Li Wen Chow Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus, Jalan Broga, Semenyih 43500, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
  • Chu Gen Lim Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus, Jalan Broga, Semenyih 43500, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
  • Shu Anne Tio Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus, Jalan Broga, Semenyih 43500, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
  • Navin Raj Vijiaretnam Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus, Jalan Broga, Semenyih 43500, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
  • Choon Fai Wong Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus, Jalan Broga, Semenyih 43500, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
  • Suchithra Thangalazhy-Gopakumar Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus, Jalan Broga, Semenyih 43500, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia

Abstract

In Malaysia, the largest contributor to biomass is from the palm oil sector. Therefore, palm-based biomass has been extensively studied for bioenergy applications. Fast pyrolysis of biomass provides a liquid fuel called bio-oil, which has many potential uses. However, a low pH of bio-oil made a challenge to utilize as it is. Therefore, in this study, empty fruit bunch (EFB) and palm kernel shell (PKS) were subjected to co-pyrolysis with POME sludge individually. The reason behind this was that the bio-oil derived from EFB and PKS are acidic, whereas bio-oil from POME sludge is basic. Hence, it was hypothesised that through the co-pyrolysis, bio-oil with lower acidity might be obtained. Chemical characterization revealed that POME sludge contains alkali and alkaline earth metals (AAEMs), which may play a significant role in influencing the weight loss of EFB and PKS, also the bio-oil yield. The co-pyrolysis of EFB and PKS with POME sludge at different ratios were initially carried out via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Results showed that for the co-pyrolysis of PKS, a positive synergistic effect was observed when 50 wt.% of POME sludge was employed. Then, pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis experiments were carried out in a fixed bed reactor at 600°C. The bio-oil yield obtained from PKS was 44.5 ± 0.7 wt.%. In contradiction to TGA studies, the bio-oil yield for co-pyrolysis of PKS and POME sludge showed a negative synergistic effect.

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Published
2020-06-24
How to Cite
TEOH, Jia Yun et al. Co-pyrolysis of Palm Empty Fruit Bunch and Palm Kernel Shell with Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) Sludge. International Journal of Biomass and Renewables, [S.l.], v. 9, n. 1, p. 1-9, june 2020. ISSN 2289-1692. Available at: <http://myjms.moe.gov.my/index.php/ijbr/article/view/7169>. Date accessed: 11 aug. 2020.